Democracy in Democratic Republic of Congo

Democracy Ratings

Freedom House 2018


6.5 out of 7

(where lower scores are more democratic)

Freedom Status:

Not Free

EIU Democracy Index 2017


1.61 out of 10

(where higher scores are more democratic)

World Ranking:


Polity IV 2016



(from -10 to 10, where higher scores are more democratic)


Open Anocracy

Political System

System of Government Semi-Presidential system
Presidential Electoral System First past the post
Last Presidential Election 2011
Next Presidential Election 2018
Presidential Term Limits Two, five-year terms
System of Appointment to Legislature

Lower Chamber: 61 single-member constituencies and 439 elected through multi-member constituencies using open list proportional representation.

Upper Chamber: Indirectly elected using proportional representation through provincial assemblies.

Last Legislative Election


Next Legislative Election


Number of Seats in Legislature Lower Chamber: 500

Upper Chamber: 108

Female quota, representation in lower house Yes: Legislated candidate quotas


Last presidential election (2011)
Candidate (Party) Votes (%)
1st round 2nd round Abolished in 2011
Joseph Kabila 48.95%
Étienne Tshisekedi 32.33%
Vital Kamerhe 7.74%
Léon Kengo 4.95%
Antipas Mbusa 1.72%
Nzanga Mobutu 1.57%
Jean Andeka 0.71%
Adam Bombolé 0.70%
François Nicéphore Kakese 0.51%
Josué Alex Mukendi 0.43%
Oscar Kashala 0.40%


Last legislative election (2011)    
Party Votes First round (%) Seats
People’s Party for Reconstruction and Democracy (PPRD) 62
Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS) 41
People’s Party for Peace and Democracy (PPPD) 29
Social Movement for Renewal (MSR) 27
Movement for the Liberation of Congo (MLC) 22
Unified Lumumbist Party (PALU) 19
Union for the Congolese Nation (UNC) 17
Alliance for Renewal in Congo (ARC) 16
Alliance of the Democratic Forces of Congo (AFDC) 15
Rally for the Reconstruction of Congo (RRC) 11
Awakening of Consciousness for Work and Development (ECT) 11
Movement for the Integrity of the People (MIP) 10
Christian Democratic Party (PDC) 7
Union for the Development of the Comoros (UPDC) 7
Congolese Rally for Democracy (RCD)- Kisangani-Liberation Movement (K-ML) 6
National Union of Democratic Federalists (UNADEF) 6
Union of Nationalist Federalists of Congo (UNAFEC) 6
Other parties 172
Independents 16

Democratic Republic of Congo on DiA


7 October 2021

Calum Booth & Nic Cheeseman

Making Sense of DR Congo’s Stunning Political Turnaround

19 February 2021

Pierre Englebert & Georges Kasongo

How to Revive Africa's Lost Civic Spaces

11 December 2020

Gbenga Sesan

#BookClub: East Africa After Liberation

17 July 2020

Jonathan Fisher

How COVID-19 is putting immunization at risk

15 May 2020

Paulina Hedwig Marie Kellersmann

Leaders for a new Africa? A new ISPI Report

24 October 2019

Giovanni Carbone and Camillo Casola

Why Africa needs a regional criminal court

4 October 2019

Dominique Mystris

The State of Democracy in Africa

24 June 2019

Nic Cheeseman

DRC: How Kabila rigged the election ... and got away with it

22 April 2019

Kris Berwouts & Filip Reyntjens

How to clean an election

22 March 2019

Nic Cheeseman

Poll in the DRC looms: Prospect for change?

26 November 2018

Reuben Loffman

Podcast: Does Democracy Work for Africa?

5 November 2018

Nic Cheeseman

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