NEW FOR 2020: The Decolonizing the Academy Reading List

In response to requests from colleagues and friends, some of whom said that they wanted to diversify their course material but were not always sure how to do so, we have assembled this set of readings on African Politics – the Decolonizing the University Academy List.

This reading list was collated in 2015 in solidarity with those who are currently attempting to decolonise the academy. We have updated it for 2020 to reflect our continued commitment to to this goal, and our support for the #BlackInTheIvory and #BlackLivesMatter movements. To be clear, our efforts here are simply to make available as many sources as possible written by African scholars. The list has been crowd sourced, so if someone is not included, that is just because they have not been proposed. We welcome your recommendations of outstanding scholarship to add to this bibliography – please make them via the comments section at the end.

You can download a PDF of the list here:

NB: Currently, this list focuses on English translations and texts but we are in the midst of developing lists in other languages and would welcome your suggestions below.

Decolonization and Global Knowledge Inequalities
  • Asongu, S.A., Orim, S.M.I. and Nting, R.T., 2019. Inequality, information technology and inclusive education in sub-Saharan Africa. Technological Forecasting and Social Change146, pp.380-389.
  • Elu, J., 2018. Gender and Science Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of African Development20(2), pp.105-110.
  • Emeagwali, G., and G. J. Sefa Dei. 2014. African indigenous knowledge and the disciplines. Springer.
  • Kwoba, B., Chantiluke, R., & Nkopo, A. (Eds.). 2018. Rhodes must fall: The struggle to decolonise the racist heart of empire. Zed Books Ltd.
  • Mbembe, A. 2015. “Decolonizing knowledge and the question of the archive.”
  • Medie, P.A. and Kang, A.J., 2018. Power, knowledge and the politics of gender in the Global South. European Journal of Politics and Gender1(1-2), pp.37-53.
  • Ndelu, S., S. Dlakavu, and B. Boswell. 2017. “Womxn’s and nonbinary activists’ contribution to the RhodesMustFall and FeesMustFall student movements: 2015 and 2016.” Agenda, 31:3-4, 1-4.
  • Ndlovu, M., 2018. Coloniality of knowledge and the challenge of creating African futures. Ufahamu: A Journal of African Studies40(2).
  • Nyamnjoh, F. B. 2016. #RhodesMustFall: Nibbling at resilient colonialism in South Africa. Langaa RPCIG.
  • Nyamnjoh, F. B. 2019. “Decolonizing the University in Africa.” In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics.
  • Mamdani, M., 2016. Between the public intellectual and the scholar: Decolonization and some post-independence initiatives in African higher education. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies17(1), pp.68-83.
  • Wa Thiong’o, N. 1981. Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature. Oxford: James Currey.
  • Mangcu, X., 2016. Decolonizing South African sociology: Building on a shared “text of Blackness”. Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race13(1), pp.45-59.
African Political Thought 
  • Achebe, C., 1984. The trouble with Nigeria. Heinemann.
  • Adi, H. and M. Sherwood. 2003. Pan-African History. New York: Routledge.
  • Ani, M. Y. 1994. An African Centred Critique of European Cultural Thought and Behavior. Trenton NJ: Africa World.
  • Appiah, K.A., 2010. Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers (Issues of Our Time). WW Norton & Company.
  • Appiah, K.A., 2010. The ethics of identity. Princeton University Press.
  • Biko, S. 1978. I write what I like.” London: Bowerdean.
  • Busia, A.P., 2006. What is Africa to me? Knowledge possession, knowledge production, and the health of our bodies politic in Africa and the Africa diaspora. African studies review, 49(01), pp.15-30.
  • Busia, K. A. (1967). Africa in search of democracy. Praeger.
  • Cabral, A., 1979. Unity and struggle: speeches and writings. Monthly Review Press.
  • Coetzee, P. H. and A.P.J. Roux. 2004. The African Philosophy Reader. London: Routledge.
  • Diop, C.A., 1959. Cultural unity of black Africa. Third World.
  • Diop, C.A., 1989. The African origin of civilization: Myth or reality. Chicago Review Press.
  • Fanon, F., 1965. The wretched of the earth(Vol. 390). Grove Press.
  • Fanon, F., 1967. A dying colonialism. Grove Press.
  • Fanon, F. and Maspero, F., 1970. Toward the African revolution. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Fanon, F., 2008. Black skin, white masks. Grove press.
  • Gordon, L. 1997. Existence in Black: An Anthology of Black Existential Philosophy. New York: Routledge.
  • Mandela, R. N. 1990. The Struggle is my Life. New York: Pathfinder.
  • Mangcu, X. 2013. Biko: A Biography. New York: IB Tauris.
  • Mboya, T., 1970. The challenge of nationhood: a collection of speeches and writings(Vol. 81). Heinemann International Inc..
  • Mkandawire, T. 2001. “African Intellectuals and Nationalism in the Changing Global Context”. Australasian Review of African Studies 23(1):11-37.
  • Mbembe, A. 1992. “The Banality of Power and the Aesthetics of Vulgarity in the Postcolony”. Public Culture. 4(2): 1-30.
  • Mbembé,  A. 2001. On the Postcolony. Univ of California Press.
  • Mbembe, A. and L. Meintjes. 2003. Necropolitics. Public Culture. 15(1): 11-40.
  • Mbembe, A. 2005. “Sovereignty as a Form of Expenditure” in Sovereign Bodies: Citizens, Migrants, and States in the Postcolonial World, edited by Thomas Blom Hansen and Finn Stepputat, 148-166.
  • Mbembe, A. 2006. “On Politics as a Form of Expenditure” in Law and Disorder in the Postcolony, edited by Jean Comaroff and John Comaroff, 299-335.
  • Mbembe, A. 2006. “On the Postcolony: A Brief Response To Critics”. African identities 4(2): 143-178.
  • Mudimbe, V. Y. 1988. The Invention of Africa: Prognosis, Philosophy and the Order of Knowlegde.Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Nkrumah, K. 1970. Consciencism: Philosophy and Ideology for De-Colonisation. First Modem.
  • Nkrumah, Kwame. Ghana: the autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah. Intl Pub, 1971.
  • Nyerere, J. 1986. Freedom and Unity: A Selection from Writings and Speeches, 1952-65. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Odinga, O., and K. Nkrumah. 1967. Not Yet Uhuru: The Autobiography of Oginga Odinga.
  • Sankara, T. 2010. Thomas Sankara Speaks: The Burkina Faso Revolution, 1983-1987. New York: Pathfinder Press.
  • Senghor, L.S. 1974. ‘Negritude’ Indian Literature. 269-273.
  • Shivji, I.G., 1989. The concept of human rights in Africa. African Books Collective.
Pre-colonial Politics, Slavery and the Role of Traditional leaders
  • Ayittey, G., 2006. Indigenous African Institutions. Brill.
  • Bob-Milliar, G. M. 2009. Chieftaincy, diaspora, and development: The institution of Nksuohene in Ghana. African Affairs. 108 (433): 541-558.
  • Chigudu, D. 2015. Assessing Policy Initiatives on Traditional Leadership to Promote Electoral Democracy in Southern Africa. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 6(1):120.
  • Diop, C.H. 1989. The African Origin of Civilisation: Myth or Reality.Chicago Review Press.
  • Kenyatta, J. 1961. Facing Mount Kenya: The Tribal Life of the Gikuyu. London: Mercury Books.
  • Mbodj, M. 1993. “The Abolition of Slavery in Senegal, 1820-1890: Crisis or the Rise of a New Entrepreneurial Class?” Breaking the Chains: Slavery, Bondage, and Emancipation in Modern Africa and Asia. 197-211.
  • Ntsebeza, L. 2004. “Democratic Decentralisation and Traditional Authority: Dilemmas of Land Administration in Rural South Africa.” The European Journal of Development Research. 16(1): 71-89.
  • Ntsebeza, L. 2005. Democracy Compromised: Chiefs and the Politics of the Land in South Africa. Leiden: Brill.
  • Plaatje, S. T. 2008. Native Life in South Africa.Blackmask Online.
  • Rodney, W. 1966. African Slavery and Other Forms of Social Oppression on the Upper Guinea Coast in the Context of the Atlantic Slave-trade. The Journal of African History. 7(03): 431-443.
  • Samatar, A. I. 1992. Destruction of state and society in Somalia: Beyond the tribal convention. Journal of Modern African Studie.30(04):625-641.
 Nationalism, Pan Africanism, and Anti-colonial Struggles
  • Barnett, D.L. and K. Njama. 1968. Mau Mau From Within.
  • Cabral, A., 1970. National liberation and culture(No. 57). Syracuse University.
  • Cabral, A., 1974. Revolution in Guinea: an African people’s struggle: selected texts. Stage 1.
  • Chinodya, S. 1990. Harvest of Thorns.
  • Fanon, F., 1965. The wretched of the earth(Vol. 390). Grove Press.
  • Fanon, F., 1967. A dying colonialism. Grove Press.
  • Fanon, F. and Maspero, F., 1970. Toward the African revolution(p. 107). Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Langa, M. 2014. The Texture of Shadows.
  • Mkandawire, T. 2002. “The Terrible Toll of Post-Colonial “Rebel Movements” in Africa: Toward an Explanation of the Violence Against the Peasantry.” Journal of Modern African Studies. 40(2): 181-215.
  • Mustapha, A.R., 1986. The national question and radical politics in Nigeria. Review of African Political Economy13(37), pp.81-96.
  • Nkrumah, K. 1971. Ghana: The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah. International Publishers.
  • Nyerere, J. 1986. Freedom and Unity: A Selection from Writings and Speeches, 1952-65. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Odinga, O., and K. Nkrumah. 1967. Not Yet Uhuru: The Autobiography of Oginga Odinga.
  • Rutanga, M. 1991. Nyabingi Movement: People’s Anti-Colonial Struggles in Kigezi, 1910-1930. CBR Working Paper Series. Centre for Basic Research.
  • Sankara, Thomas. 2010. Thomas Sankara Speaks: The Burkina Faso Revolution 1983-1987. New York: Pathfinders.
  • Sembène, O. 1960. Gods Bits of Wood. Le Livre Contemporain.
  • Senghor, L.S. 2004. “Negritude and African Socialism” in The African Philosophy Reader. London: Routledge, edited by P. Coetzee et al, 438-447.
  • Soyinka, W. 2002. Death and the King’s Horseman. WW Norton & Company.
  • Vera, Y. 2002. The Stone Virgins.
Citizenship and Statehood
  • Adebanwi, W. 2009. Terror, territoriality and the struggle for indigeneity and citizenship in Northern Nigeria. Citizenship studies. 13(4): 349-363.
  • Bezabeh, S. A. 2011. Citizenship and the Logic of Sovereignty in Djibouti. African Affairs, 110(441). 587-606.
  • Diouf, M. 1998. “The French Colonial Policy of Assimilation and the Civility of the Originaires of the Four Communes (Senegal): A Nineteenth Century Globalization Project. Development and Change. 29(4): 671-696.
  • Diouf, M., and S. Rendall. 2000. “The Senegalese Murid trade diaspora and the making of a vernacular cosmopolitanism.” Public Culture.12(3): 679-702.
  • Ekeh, P.P. 1975. “Colonialism and the Two Publics in Africa: A Theoretical Statement.” Comparative Studies in Society and History.17(01): 91-112.
  • Ekeh, P.P. 1990. “Social Anthropology and Two Contrasting Uses of Tribalism in Africa.” Comparative Studies in Society and History32(04): 660-700.
  • Emecheta, B. 1994. Second-class citizen. Heinemann.
  • Golooba‐Mutebi, F. 2004. Reassessing Popular Participation in Uganda. Public Administration and Development. 24(4): 289-304.
  • Karekwaivanane, G. H. 2011. ‘It Shall be the Duty of Every African to Obey and Comply Promptly’: Negotiating State Authority in the Legal Arena, Rhodesia 1965–1980. Journal of Southern African Studies, 37(02): 333-349.
  • Mahmood, M. 2001. “Beyond Settler and Native as Political Identities: Overcoming the Political Legacy of Colonialism.” Comparative Studies in Society and History43(4): 651–64.
  • Mamdani, M. 1996. “From Conquest to Consent as the Basis of State Formation: Reflections on Rwanda”. New Left Review, 216: 3–36.
  • Mamdani, M. 1996. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Pinceton: Princeton University Press.
  • Mustapha, A. R.. 1986. “The National Question and Radical Politics in Nigeria.” Review of African Political Economy.13(37): 81-96.
  • Ndegwa, S. N. 1997. “Citizenship and Ethnicity: An Examination of Two Transition Moments in Kenyan Politics.” American Political Science Review. 91(03): 599-616.
  • Nyamnjoh, F. B. 2005. Africa’s Media: Democracy and the Politics of Belonging. London: Zed Books.
  • Nyamnjoh, F. B. 2006. Insiders and Outsiders: Citizenship and Xenophobia in Contemporary Southern Africa. Zed Books.
  • Nzongola-Ntalaja, G. 2007. “The Politics of Citizenship in the Democratic Republic of Congo” in Making Nations, Creating Strangers: States and Citizenship in Africa, edited by Sarah Rich Dorman et al, 69-80.
  • Samatar, A. and A.I. Samatar. 2002. The African State: Reconsiderations. London: Heinemann.
  • Samatar, A. I. 2004. Ethiopian Federalism: Autonomy Versus Control in the Somali Region. Third World Quarterly. 25(6):1131-1154.
 Social Movements and Civil Society
  • Ekeh, P. “Colonialism and the Two Publics in Africa: A Theoretical Statement”,Comparative Studies in Society and History.17:91-112.
  • Gyimah-Boadi. E. 1996. ‘Civil Society in Africa’. Journal of Democracy. 7(2): 118-32.
  • Gyimah-Boadi, E. 2004. “Civil society and Democratic Development.” Democratic Reform in Africa: The Quality of Progress, edited by E. Gyimah-Boadi, 99.
  • Habib, A. 2005. State-civil Society Relations in Post-apartheid South Africa. Social Research. 72(3):671-692.
  • Kanyinga, K., 2011. Stopping a conflagration: The response of Kenyan civil society to the post-2007 election violence. Politikon38(1), pp.85-109.
  • Maundeni, Z. 2004. Civil Society, Politics and the State in Botswana. Medi Publishing.
  • Mbali, M. 2004. “AIDS Discourses and the South African State: Government Denialism and Post-apartheid AIDS Policy-making. Transformation”: Critical Perspectives on Southern Africa. 54(1):104-122.
  • Mbali, M. 2013. South African AIDS activism and global health politics. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Murunga, G.R. 2000. “Civil Society and the Democratic Experience in Kenya.” African Sociological Review/Revue Africaine de Sociologie.4(1): 97-118.
  • Nzongola-Ntalaja, G. 2002. The Congo: From Leopold to Kabila: A People’s History. Lonson: Zed Books.
  • Oloka‐Onyango, J., and J.J. Barya. 1997. Civil Society and the Political Economy of Foreign Aid in Uganda. Democratization. 4(2):113-138.
  • Oloka-Onyango, J. 2002. Reinforcing Marginalized Rights in an Age of Globalization: International Mechanisms, Non-State Actors, and the Struggle for People’s Rights in Africa. American University International Law Review.18:851.
Parties, Elections and Democracy
  • Adebayo, J.O., 2016. Fostering nonviolent elections in Africa through conflict-sensitive reportage of elections. African Security Review25(3), pp.303-315.
  • Ake, Claude. Democratization of Disempowerment in Africa. Lagos: Malthouse Press.
  • Ake, C. 2001. Democracy and Development in Africa. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.
  • Ake, C. 2000. The Feasibility of Democracy in Africa. African Books Collective.
  • Alieno, A. 2007. “Mungiki: “Neo-Mau Mau” and the Prospects for Democracy in Kenya’”. Review of African Political Economy. 34(113):526-531.
  • Chigudu, D. 2015. Foreign Election Observers in Africa: Towards an Obligations-Based Approach. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 6(1):272.
  • Gazibo, M., 2002. Neo-Institutionalism in Comparative Analysis of Democratization Processes. Politics and societies , 21 (3), pp.139-160.
  • Gazibo, M., 2005. The paradoxes of democratization in Africa: institutional and strategic analysis . PUM.
  • Gazibo, M. 2005. Foreign aid and democratization: Benin and Niger compared. African Studies Review , 48 (3), pp.67-87.
  • Gondwe, G., 2020. Agenda-Setting theory in African contexts: A Jekyll and Hyde in the Zambian Presidential elections. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development7(5), pp.93-100.
  • Kanyinga, K., 2018. Elections without constitutionalism: votes, violence, and democracy gaps in Africa. African Journal of Democracy and Governance5(4), pp.147-168.
  • Kiwuwa, D. 2012. Ethnic Politics and Democratic Transition in Rwanda. London: Routledge.
  • Makara, S., L. Rakner and L. Svåsand. 2009. Turnaround: The National Resistance Movement and the Reintroduction of a Multiparty System in Uganda. International Political Science Review. 30(2):185-204.
  • Mandela, R.N. 1994. A Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela. London: Bayback Books.
  • Mano, W. and Ndlela, M.N., 2020. Introduction: Social Media, Political Cultures and Elections in Africa. In Social Media and Elections in Africa, Volume 2 (pp. 1-7). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
  • Mangcu, X. 2005. The Meaning of Mandela (essays by Wole Soyinka, Cornel West, Henry Louis Gates Jr.) Johannesburg: HSRC Press.
  • Mangcu, X. 2008. To the Brink: The State of Democracy in South Africa. Durban: UKZN Press.
  • Murunga, G. R., and Shadrack W. Nasong’o. 2007. Kenya: The Struggle for Democracy. London: Zed Books.
  • Murunga, G. 2002. “A Critical Look at Kenya’s Non-transition to Democracy.” Journal of Third World Studies.19(2): 89.
  • Murunga, G. et al (eds). 2014. Kenya the Struggle for a New Constitutional Order. London: Zed books and NAI.
  • Muzondidya, J. 2013. “The Opposition Dilemma in Zimbabwe: A Critical Review of the Politics of the Move.” In The Hard Road to Reform: The Politics of Zimbabwe’s Global Political Agreement, edited by Brian Raftopoulos, 39–70.
  • Mwenda, A. M. 2007. Personalizing Power in Uganda. Journal of Democracy.18(3): 23-37.
  • N’Diaye, B. 2006. “Mauritania, August 2005: Justice and Democracy, or Just Another Coup?.” African Affairs.105(420): 421-441.
  • Ndegwa, Stephen N. 2003. “Kenya: Third Time Lucky?.” Journal of Democracy. 14(3): 145-158.
  • Ndlela, M.N., 2020. Social Media Algorithms, Bots and Elections in Africa. In Social Media and Elections in Africa, Volume 1 (pp. 13-37). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
  • Nyabola, N., 2018. Digital democracy, analogue politics: How the Internet era is transforming politics in Kenya. Zed Books Ltd..
  • Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges. 1984. “Bureaucracy, Elite, New Class: Who Serves Whom and Why in Mobutu’s Zaire?”Canadian Journal of African Studies/La Revue Canadienne Des Études Africaines.18(1): 99–102.
  • Olukoshi, A. O. 1998. The Politics of Opposition in Contemporary Africa. Nordic Africa Institute.
  • Olugbemiga Afolabi, S., 2017. Interrogating the Credibility of Elections in Africa: Implications for Democracy, Good Governance and Peace?. Journal of Pan African Studies10(1).
  • Omotola, J. S. 2010. Elections and democratic transition in Nigeria under the Fourth Republic. African Affairs. 109 (437):535-553.
  • Opalo, K., 2012. African elections: Two divergent trends. Journal of Democracy23(3), pp.80-93.
  • Opalo, K., 2014. The long road to institutionalization: the Kenyan Parliament and the 2013 elections. Journal of Eastern African Studies8(1), pp.63-77.
  • Opalo, K., 2019. Constrained Presidential Power in Africa? Legislative Independence and Executive Rule Making in Mustapha, A.R., 1986. The national question and radical politics in Nigeria. Review of African Political Economy13(37), pp.81-96.Kenya, 1963–2013. British Journal of Political Science, pp.1-18.
  • Opalo, K., 2019. Legislative Development in Africa: Politics and Postcolonial Legacies. Cambridge University Press.
  • Opalo, K., 2019. The Rise of the African Legislature?. In N. Cheeseman ed Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics.
  • Osoba, S. 1977. “The Nigerian Political Elite: 1952-1965.” in African Social Studies, edited by P. Gutkind and P. Waterman. London: Heinemann.
  • Owusu, M. 1992. ‘Democracy and Africa: A View from the Village’, Journal of Modern African Studies. 30(3).369-396.
  • Poku, Nana and Anna Mdee 2011. Politics in Africa: A New Introduction. London, Zed.
  • Prempeh, H. K. 2008. “Presidents Untamed.” Journal of Democracy.19(2):109-123.
  • Tendi, B.M. 2014. “The Origins and Functions of Demonisation Discourses in Britain–Zimbabwe Relations (2000–).” Journal of Southern African Studies. 1–19.
  • Ugochukwu Nwosu B. 2012. ‘Tracks of the Third Wave: Democracy Theory, Democratisation and the Dilemma of Political Succession in Africa’. Review of African Political Economy. 39(131): 11-25.
  • Usman, Z. and Owen, O., 2015. Why Goodluck Jonathan Lost the Nigerian Presidential Election of 2015. African Affairs, p.adv037.
  • Wamba-dia-Wamba, E. 1992. “Beyond Elite Politics of Democracy in Africa.” Quest: An International African Journal of Philosophy. 6.1:29-42.
  • Zamchiya, P. 2013. The MDC-T’s (Un) Seeing Eye in Zimbabwe’s 2013 Harmonised Elections: A Technical Knockout. Journal of Southern African Studies. 39(4): 955-962.
  • Zeydanli, T., 2017. Elections and Subjective Living Conditions in Sub‐Saharan Africa. African Development Review29(4), pp.545-561.
The Politics of Ethnicity
  • Ake, C. 1993. “What is the Problem of Ethnicity in Africa.” Transformation: Critical Perspectives on Southern Africa.22: 1-14.
  • Ake, C. “A World of Political Ethnicity.” inThe Historical Dimension of Development, Change and Conflict in the South, edited by R. Berg (et al).
  • Habyarimana, J., M. Humphreys, D.N. Posner, and J.M. Weinstein. 2004. Ethnic Identifiability: An Experimental Approach. Los Angeles: University of California.
  • Kanyinga, K., 1994. Ethnicity, Patronage and Class in a Local Arena:“High “and “Low “politics in Kiambu, Kenya, 1982–92. The New Local Level Politics in East Africa, p.66.
  • Kanyinga, K., 2009. The legacy of the white highlands: Land rights, ethnicity and the post-2007 election violence in Kenya. Journal of Contemporary African Studies27(3), pp.325-344.
  • Langer, A., A.R. Mustapha, A. R., and F. Stewart. 2009. Diversity and Discord: Ethnicity, Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict in Ghana and Nigeria. Journal of International Development. 21(4):477-482.
  • Mafeje, A. 1971. “The Ideology of ‘Tribalism.’” The Journal of Modern African Studies.9(2):253–61.
  • Mamdani, M. 2012. Define and Rule: Native as Political Identity. Johannesburg: Wits University Press.
  • Murunga, G.R. and S. W. Nasong’o. 2006. “Bent on self-destruction: The Kibaki regime in Kenya.” Journal of Contemporary African Studies.24(1). 1-28.
  • Mustapha, A. R. 2009. Institutionalising ethnic representation: How effective is affirmative action in Nigeria? Journal of International Development. 21(4): 561-576.
  • Mustapha, A. R. “Ethnicity and the Politics of Democratization in Nigeria.” in Ethnicity and Democracy in Africa, edited by Bruce Berman (et al).
  • Mwangi Kagwanja. P, 2003. “Facing Mount Kenya or Facing Mecca? The Mungiki, Ethnic Violence and the Politics of the Moi Succession in Kenya, 1987-2002”. African Affairs. 102(406): 25-49.
  • Osaghae, E. E. 1998. “Managing Multiple Minority Problems in a Divided Society: The Nigerian Experience.” The Journal of Modern African Studies.36(1): 1–24.
  • Osaghae, E. E. 1995. Structural Adjustment and Ethnicity in Nigeria. 98. Nordic Africa Institute.
  • Samatar, A. I. 1997. Leadership and Ethnicity in the Making of African State Models: Botswana versus Somalia. Third World Quarterly, 18(4): 687-708.
  • Ukiwo, U. 2005. The Study of Ethnicity in Nigeria. Oxford Development Studies. 33(1): 7-23.
The Politics of Religion
  • Addo, E. O. 1997. Kwame Nkrumah: A Case Study of Religion and Politics in Ghana. University Press of America.
  • Ahmed, A.C., 1999. Islam et politique aux Comores: évolution de l’autorité spirituelle depuis le protectorat français (1886) jusqu’à nos jours.
  • Babou, C.A., 2007. Fighting the Greater Jihad: Amadu Bamba and the Founding of the Muridiyya of Senegal, 1853–1913. Ohio University Press.
  • Chome, N., 2019. From Islamic reform to Muslim activism: The evolution of an Islamist ideology in Kenya. African Affairs.
  • Mbiti, J. S. 1990. African Religions and Philosophy. New York: Heinemann.
  • Mustapha, A. R. (ed). 2014. Sects and Social Disorder: Muslim Identities & Conflict in Northern Nigeria. Rochester: Boydell and Brewer Ltd.
  • Mustapha, A. R. 2014. Understanding Boko Haram. Sects & Social Disorder: Muslim Identities & Conflict in Northern Nigeria, edited by Raufu Mustapha, 147 – 198.
  • Mwaura, P. N., and D.S. Parsitau. 2012. Perceptions of Women’s Health and Rights in Christian New Religious Movements in Kenya. African Traditions in the Study of Religion in Africa: Emerging Trends, Indigenous Spirituality and the Interface with Other World Religionsedited by A. Adogame (et al), 175 – 185.
  • Kane, O., 2003. Muslim modernity in postcolonial Nigeria: A study of the society for the removal of innovation and reinstatement of tradition.
  • Parsitau, D. S. 2008. “Sounds of Change and Reform: The Appropriation of Gospel Music and Dance in Political Discourses in Kenya”. Studies in World Christianity. 14(1): 55-72.
  • Sherrif, A. 2010. Dhow Cultures and the Indian Ocean: Cosmopolitanism, Commerce and Islam. Columbia University Press and Zanzibar Indian Ocean Research Institute.
  • Tayob, A., 1999. Islam in South Africa: mosques, imams, and sermons. University Press of Florida.
  • Tarusarira, J., and G. Ganiel. 2012. Religion, Secular Democracy and Conflict Resolution in Zimbabwe. The Ashgate Research Companion to Religion and Conflict Resolution, 99-117.
  • Tayob, A. 2008. Islamic Politics in South Africa between Identity and Utopia. South African Historical Journal. 60(4): 583-599.
  • Ukah, A. F. 2007. African Christianities: Features, Promises and Problems. Working Paper 79. Johannes Gutenbertg-Universität.
  • Umar, M.S., 2006. Islam and Colonialism: intellectual responses of Muslims of Northern Nigeria to British colonial rule(Vol. 5). Brill.
 The Politics of Gender and Youth
  • Abdullah, H.J. and Fofana-Ibrahim, A., 2010. The Meaning and Practice of Women’s Empowerment in Post-conflict Sierra Leone. Development, 53(2), pp.259-266.
  • Adichie, C. N. 2014. We Should All Be Feminists. New York: Vintage.
  • Alidou, O.D., 2005. Engaging modernity: Muslim women and the politics of agency in postcolonial Niger. Univ of Wisconsin Press.
  • Amadiume, I. 1987. Male Daughters, Female Husbands: Gender and Sex in an African Society. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Amadiume, I. 1997. Re-inventing Africa: Matriarchy, religion and culture. London: Zed Books.
  • Amadiume, I. 2000. “Daughters of the Goddess, Daughters of Imperialism African Women Struggle for Culture, Power and Democracy.” London: Zed Books.
  • Asongu, S.A. and Odhiambo, N.M., 2020. Inequality and gender inclusion: Minimum ICT policy thresholds for promoting female employment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Telecommunications Policy44(4), p.101900.
  • Bennett, J., and H. Chigudu. 2012. Researching Sexuality with Young Women: Southern Africa. Feminist Africa. 17:1-7.
  • Dendere, C., 2018. Finding Women in the Zimbabwean Transition. Meridians17(2), pp.376-381.
  • Diouf, M. (2003) “Engaging Postcolonial Cultures: African Youth and Public Space.” African Studies Review. 46(02): 1-12.
  • Elu, J., 2018. Gender and Science Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of African Development20(2), pp.105-110.
  • Hassim, S., 2006. Women’s organizations and democracy in South Africa: contesting authority. Univ of Wisconsin Press.
  • Imam, A., A. Mama, and F. Sow (eds). 1997. Engendering African Social Sciences. Dakar: CODESRIA.
  • Kanyinga, K. and Njoka, J.M., 2002. The role of youth in politics: the social praxis of party politics among the urban Lumpen in Kenya. African Journal of sociology4(2).
  • Khadiagala, L., 2001. The failure of popular justice in Uganda: Local councils and women’s property rights. Development and change, 32(1), pp.55-76.
  • Mama, A. 1997. “Feminism or Femocracy? State Feminism and Democratisation in Nigeria.” Africa Development.20(1): 37–58.
  • Mama, A. 2001. “Challenging Subjects: Gender and Power in African Contexts.” African Sociological Review/Revue Africaine de Sociologie5(2): 63–73.
  • Medie, P. A. 2013. Fighting Gender-based Violence: The Women’s Movement and the Enforcement of Rape Law in Liberia. African Affairs. 112 (448): 377-397.
  • Medie, P.A., 2015. Women and Postconflict Security: A Study of Police Response to Domestic Violence in Liberia. Politics & Gender11(3), pp.478-498.
  • Medie, P.A., 2016. Women’s and Feminist Activism in W est A frica. The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Gender and Sexuality Studies, pp.1-4.
  • Medie, P.A. and Kang, A.J., 2018. Power, knowledge and the politics of gender in the Global South. European Journal of Politics and Gender1(1-2), pp.37-53.
  • Nyabola, N., 2016. A Seat at the Table: The Fight for Gender Parity in Kenya and Somalia. World Policy Journal33(4), pp.10-15.
  • Oloka-Onyango, J. and Tamale, S. 1995. ” The Personal is Political,” or Why Women’s Rights are Indeed Human Rights: An African Perspective on International Feminism. Human Rights Quarterly. 17(4): 691-731.
  • Oyěwùmí, O. 1997. The Invention of Women: Making an African Sense of Western Gender Discourses. University of Minnesota Press.
  • Tamale, S. 2011. African Sexualities: A Reader. London: Pambazuka.
  • Tamale, S. 1999. When Hens Begin to Crow: Gender and Parliamentary Politics in Uganda. Westview Press.
  • Tamale, S. 2007. Out of the Closet: Unveiling Sexuality Discourses in Uganda. Africa After Genderedited by C.M. Cole (et al), 17-29.
Agricultural Politics and Land Reform
  • Kimuli, K. 2007. ‘Tax me if you can: Ethnic geography, democracy, and the taxation of agriculture in Africa’. American Political Science Review. 101(1): 159-172.
  • Mkandawire, T., 2009. Institutional Monocropping and Monotasking in Africa. UNRSID.
  • Moyo, S. 2005. “Land and Natural Resource Redistribution in Zimbabwe: Access, Equity and Conflict.” African and Asian Studies.4(1): 187-224.
  • Ntsebeza, L. 2004. “Democratic Decentralisation and Traditional Authority: Dilemmas of Land Administration in Rural South Africa.” The European Journal of Development Research. 16(1):71-89.
  • Zamchiya, P. 2011. A Synopsis of Land and Agrarian Change in Chipinge district, Zimbabwe. Journal of Peasant Studies. 38(5): 1093-1122.
  • Zamchiya, P. 2013. The Role of Politics and State Practices in Shaping Rural Differentiation: A Study of Resettled Small-Scale Farmers in South-Eastern Zimbabwe. Journal of Southern African Studies. 39(4):937-953.
Urban Politics
  • Bagaeen, S., and O. Uduku (eds). 2010. Gated Communities: Social Sustainability in Contemporary and Historical Gated Developments. London: Routledge.
  • Chipungu, L. and Adebayo, A.A. 2013. Policy and Planning Divide: An Evaluation of Housing Production in the Aftermath of Operation Murambatsvina in Zimbabwe. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment.28 (2): 381-396.
  • Hamalengwa, Munyonzwe. 1992. Class Struggles in Zambia, 1889-1989 and the Fall of Kenneth Kaunda, 1990-1991. University Press of America
  • Ismail, S. 2015. The Victoria Mxenge Housing project- women building activism through social activism and informal learning. UCT Press, Cape Town
  • Kombe, W. J., and Kreibich, V. 2000. Reconciling Informal and Formal Land Management: An Agenda for Improving Tenure Security and Urban Governance in Poor Countries. Habitat International. 24(2): 231-240.
  • LeVan, C. and J. Olubowale. 2014. ‘I am Here Until Development Comes’: Displacement, Demolitions, and Property Rights in Urbanizing Nigeria’. African Affairs.113 (452): 387-408.
  • Musoni, Francis. 2010. “Operation Murambatsvina and the Politics of Street Vendors in Zimbabwe.” Journal of Southern African Studies.36(2): 301–17.
  • Ngalamulume, K. 2004. Keeping the City Totally Clean: Yellow Fever and the Politics of Prevention in Colonial Saint-Louis-du-Sènègal, 1850–1914. The Journal of African History. 45(02):183-202.
  • Nuwagaba, A. 1996. Urbanisation and Environmental Crisis in a Ugandan City: Implications for Environmental Management and Sustainable Development. Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. 12(1): 15-33.
  • Obeng-Odoom, F. 2011. Ill Health Unleashed? Cities and Municipal Services in Ghana. Review of African Political Economy. 38(127): 43-60.
  • Yeboah, I. 2006. Subaltern Strategies and Development Practice: Urban Water Privatization in Ghana. The Geographical Journal. 172(1): 50-65.
  • Zikode, S. 2008. The Greatest Threat to Future Stability in Our Country is the Greatest Strength of the Abahlali baseMjondolo Movement (SA). Journal of Asian and African studies. 43(1):113-117.
Foreign Policy, International Relations, and African Union
  • Adejumobi, S. and A. Olukoshi (eds.). 2008. The African Union and New Strategies for Development in Africa. New York: Cambria Press.
  • Adebajo, A., 2002. Building Peace in West Africa: Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea-Bissau. Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Adebajo, A., 2003. Africa and America in an Age of Terror. Journal of Asian and African Studies38(2-3), pp.175-191.
  • Adebajo, A. 2009. From Global Apartheid to Global Village: Africa and the United Nations. Scotsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.
  • Adebajo, A. and Mustapha, A.R. eds., 2008. Gulliver’s troubles: Nigeria’s foreign policy after the Cold War. University of Natal Press.
  • Adebajo, A., 2010. The curse of Berlin: Africa after the cold war. London: Hurst.
  • Adebajo, A., 2007. South Africa in Africa: messiah or mercantilist?. South African Journal of International Affairs14(1), pp.29-47.
  • Akokparti, J., A. Ndinga-Muvumba and T. Murithi (eds.). 2009. The African Union and its Institutions. Cape Town: Jacana.
  • Asante, Samuel KB. The political economy of regionalism in Africa: a decade of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Praeger Publishers, 1986.
  • Baimu, E., and K. Sturman. 2003. “Amendment to the African Union’s Right to Intervene: A Shift from Human Security to Regime Security?.” African Security Studies.12(2): 37-45.
  • Carmody, P. R., and F.Y. Owusu. 2007. “Competing Hegemons? Chinese versus American Geo-economic Strategies in Africa.” Political Geography.26(5): 504-524.
  • Gazibo, M. and Mbabia, O., 2010. China’s rising African policy in the era of the new rush to Africa. International Studies , 41 (4), pp.521-546.
  • Khadiagala, G.M., 1994. Allies in adversity: The frontline states in southern African security, 1975-1993. Ohio University Press.
  • Khadiagala, G.M. and Lyons, T. eds., 2001. African foreign policies: power and process. Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Khadiagala, G.M., 1993. Uganda’s Domestic and Regional Security since the 1970s. The Journal of Modern African Studies31(2), pp.231-255.
  • Khadiagala, G.M. ed., 2006. Security dynamics in Africa’s Great Lakes region. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
  • Legler, T., and T. Kwasi Tieku. 2010. “What Difference Can a Path Make? Regional Democracy Promotion Regimes in the Americas and Africa.” Democratization. 17(3): 465-491.
  • Makinda, S. M., and F. Wafula Okumu. 2007. The African Union: Challenges of Globalization, Security, and Governance. London: Routledge.
  • Maundi, M.O., Nuamah, K., Zartman, I.W. and Khadiagala, G.M., 2006. Getting in: Mediators’ entry into the settlement of African conflicts. US Institute of Peace Press
  • Mugomba, A. T. 1978. “Regional Organisations and African Underdevelopment: The Collapse of the East African Community.” The Journal of Modern African Studies.16(02): 261-272.
  • Murithi, T. 2008. “The African Union’s Evolving Role in Peace Operations: The African Union Mission in Burundi, the African Union Mission in Sudan and the African Union Mission in Somalia.” African Security Studies.17(1): 69-82.
  • Murithi, T. 2005. The African Union. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • Omar A. Touray. 2005. “The Common African Defence and Security Policy”. African Affairs. 104 (417): 635-656
  • Tieku, T. K. 2004. “Explaining the Clash and Accommodation of Interests of Major Actors in the Creation of the African Union.” African Affairs.103(411): 249-267.
The Military and Security Sector Reform
  • Aboagye, F. 1999. The Ghana Army. Accra: Sedco.
  • Agbese, P.O. 1988. “Defence Expenditures and Private Capital Accumulation in Nigeria” Journal of Asian and African Studies. 13: 3-4.
  • Assenoh, A.B. and Yvette M.A. 2001. African Military History and Politics: Coups and Ideological Incursions 1900-present. New York: Palgrave.
  • Egbo, O., I. Nwakoby, J. Onwumere, and C. Uche. 2012. Security Votes in Nigeria: Disguising Stealing from the Public Purse. African Affairs111(445):597-614.
  • Hutchful, E. and Abdoulaye B. (eds.) 1998. The Military and Militarism in Africa. Dakar: CODESRIA.
  • Ihonvbere, J.O. 1996. “Are Things Falling Apart? The Military and the Crisis of Democratisation in Nigeria” Journal of Modern African Studies. 34(2):193-225.
  • Kandeh, J. 1996. “What Does the ‘Militariat’ Do when it Rules? Military Regimes, the Gambia, Sierra Leone, and Liberia”. Review of African Political Economy. 23(69): 387-404.
  • Mashike, L. 2008. Age of despair: The Un-integrated Forces of South Africa. African Affairs. 107(428):433-453.
  • Mazrui, A.A 1975. Soldiers and Kingsmen in Uganda: The Making of a Military Ethnocracy. London: Sage Publications.
  • Mazrui, A.A. (ed). 1977. The Warrior Tradition in Africa. Leiden: Brill.
  • Mazrui, A.A. 1977. “Soldiers as Traditionalizers: Military Rule and the Re-Africanization of Africa.” Journal of Asian and African Studies. 12(4): 236-58.
  • Mazrui, A.A. 1980. The African Condition: The Reith Lectures. London: Heinemann.
  • Murithi, T. 2008. “The African Union’s Evolving Role in Peace Operations: The African Union Mission in Burundi, the African Union Mission in Sudan and the African Union Mission in Somalia” The African Security Review. 17(1): 69-82.
  • Museveni, Y. 1997. Sowing the Mustard Seed:The Struggle for Freedom and Democracy in Uganda. London:
  • Mwenda, A. and R. Tangri. 2003. “Military Corruption & Ugandan Politics since the late 1990s” in Review of African Political Economy, 30:98, pp. 539-552.
  • N’Diaye, B. 2001. The Challenge of Institutionalising Civilian Control: Botswana, Ivory Coast and Kenya in Comparative Perspective. Oxford: Leighton Books.
  • Nindorera, W. 2007. Security Sector Reform in Burundi: Issues and Challenges for Improving Civilian Protection, Centre d’Alerte et de Prévention des Conflits (CENAP)/North-South Institute (NSI). Working Paper. Ottawa. NSI.
  • Nwagwu, E. 2002. Taming the Tiger: Civil-Military Relations and the Search for Political Stability in Nigeria. University Press of America.
  • Okoye, I. 1991. Soldiers and Politics in Nigeria. Enugu: New Age Publishers.
  • Rupiya, M. (ed). 2005. Evolutions & Revolutions: A Contemporary History of Militaries in Southern Africa.Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.
  • Rusagara, FK, G Mwaura, and G Nyirimanzi. 2009. Resilience of a Nation: A History of the Military in Rwanda. Fountain Pub Ltd.
  • K. 2013. A History of the Military in Rwanda. Foundations Publishers. Kigali.
  • Tangri, R. and A. W. Mwenda. 2003. ‘Military Corruption and Ugandan Politics Since the Late 1990s’. Review of African Political Economy. 30(98): 539-552.
  • Vrey, F. et al. (eds.) 2013. On Military Culture: Theory, Practise and African Armed Forces. Cape Town:UCT Press.
Conflict and Civil War
  • Abdullah, I., Bangura, Y., Blake, C., Gberie, L., Johnson, L., Kallon, K., Kemokai, S., Muana, P.K., Rashid, I. and Zack-Williams, A., 1997. Lumpen youth culture and political violence: Sierra Leoneans debate the RUF and the civil war. Africa Development/Afrique et Développement, 22(3/4), pp.171-215.
  • Bangura, Y., 1997. Understanding the Political Cultural Dynamics of the Sierra Leone War: A Critique of Paul Richard’s” Fighting for the Rain Forest”.Africa Development/Afrique et Développement, 22(3/4), pp.117-148.
  • Bangura, Y., 2000. Strategic policy failure and governance in Sierra Leone.The Journal of Modern African Studies, 38(04), pp.551-577.
  • Elbadawi, E., and N. Sambanis. 2000. “Why Are There So Many Civil Wars in Africa? Understanding and Preventing Violent Conflict.” Journal of African Economies.9(3): 244-269.
  • Golooba-Mutebi, F. 2008. “Collapse, War, and Reconstruction in Rwanda: An Analytical Narrative on State Making.” Crisis States Working Papers Series No. 2. LSE.
  • Kimonyo, J.P., 2016. Rwanda’s Popular Genocide: A Perfect Storm. Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Kisangani, E. F. 2012. Civil Wars in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 1960-2010. Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Mamdani, M. 2002. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Mamdani, M. 2002. “African States, Citizenship and War: A Case–study.” International Affairs.78(3): 493–506.
  • Mamdani, M. 2007. The Politics of Naming: Genocide, Civil War, Insurgency. London Review of Books. 29(5):5-8.
  • Medie, P. A. 2013. Fighting Gender-based Violence: The Women’s Movement and the Enforcement of Rape Law in Liberia. African Affairs. 112 (448): 377-397.
  • Nhema, Alfred Gwarega and Zeleza, Paul Tyambe (eds)The Roots of African Conflicts: the Causes & Costs. Oxford, James Currey.
  • Mwagiru, M. 2006. Conflict in Africa: Theory, Processes and Institutions of Management. Nairobi: CCR Publications.
  • Mwakikagile, G. 2013. Civil Wars in Rwanda and Burundi: Conflict Resolution in Africa. New Africa Press.
 The Politics of Refugees and Migration
  • Adepoju, A. 1982. “The Dimensions of the Refugee Problem in Africa.” African Affairs.81(322): 21–35.
  • Akyeampong, E. 2005. “Diaspora and Drug Trafficking in West Africa: A Case Study of Ghana.” African Affairs.104(416): 429–47.
  • Akyeampong, E. 2000. Congo-Paris: Transnational Traders on the Margins of the Law. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Crush, J. and D. Tevera. 2010. Zimbabwe’s Exodus: Crisis, Migration, Survival. Southern African Migration Project.
  • Mamdani, M. 2011. From Citizen to Refugee: Uganda Asians come to Britain. London: Pambazuka.
  • Mazrui, A. A. A., I. Okpewho and C.B. Davies. 1999. The African Diaspora: African Origins and the New World Identities. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Mbembé, J-A. and Steven Rendall. 2000. “At the Edge of the World: Boundaries, Territoriality, and Sovereignty in Africa.” Public Culture.12(1): 259-284.
  • Mushemeza, E.D. 2007. The Politics and Empowerment of Banyarwanda Refugees in Uganda, 1959-2001. Fountain Publishers.
  • Ndjio, B. 2008. Mokoagne Moni: Sorcery and New Forms of Wealth in Cameroon. Past & Present199(3):271-289.
  • Ndjio, B. 2009. “Shanghai Beauties’ and African Desires: Migration, Trade and Chinese Prostitution in Cameroon”. European Journal of Development Research, 21(4): 606-621.
  • Obadare, E., and W. Adebanwi. 2009. “Transnational Resource Flow and the Paradoxes of Belonging: Redirecting the Debate on Transnationalism, Remittances, State and Citizenship in Africa.” Review of African Political Economy. 36(122): 499-517.
  • Okpewho, I., and N. Nzegwu. 2009. The New African Diaspora. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Oloka-Onyango, J. 1995. Plight of the Larger Half: Human Rights, Gender Violence and the Legal Status of Refugee and Internally Displaced Women in Africa, Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 24 (3): 349–489.
  • Samatar, A. I., M. Lindberg and B. Mahayni. 2010. “The Dialectics of Piracy in Somalia: The Rich Versus the Poor”. Third World Quarterly.31(8):1377-1394.
 Peace-making, Peace-building, and Reconciliation
  • Adebajo, A. 2002. Building Peace in West Africa; Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea-Bissau. Lynne Reiner.
  • Amadiume, I. 2000. The Politics of Memory: Truth, Healing and Social Justice. London: Zed Books.
  • Khadiagala, G.M., 2007. Meddlers or mediators?: African interveners in civil conflicts in Eastern Africa (Vol. 4). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers/Brill Academic Publishers.
  • Khadiagala, G.M., 2009. Regionalism and conflict resolution: Lessons from the Kenyan crisis. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 27(3), pp.431-444.
  • Kimonyo, J.P., N. Twagiramungu, and C. Kayumba. 2004. Supporting the Post-Genocide Transition in Rwanda: The Role of the International Community. The Hague: Netherlands.
  • Maina, Grace and Erik Melander (eds) 2015. Peace Agreements and Durable Peace in Africa. Pietermaritzburg, University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.
  • Mandaza, I. 1999. Reconciliation and Social Justice in Southern Africa: The Zimbabwe Experience in  African Renaissance: The New Struggle, edited by Malegapuru William Makgoba, 81.
  • Mbembe, A. 2008. “Passages to Freedom: The Politics of Racial Reconciliation in South Africa”. Public Culture. 20(1): 5-18.
  • Mgbako, C. 2005. “Ingando Solidarity Camps: Reconciliation and Political Indoctrination in Post-Genocide Rwanda.” Harvard Human Rights Journal.18: 201–24.
  • Murithi, T. 2005.The African Union:Pan-African Peacebuilding and Development. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • Okumu Wafula Okumu and Augustine Ikelegbe  (eds) 2010. Militias, Rebels and Islamist Militants: Human Insecurity and State in Africa. Pretoria, Institute for Security Studies.
  • Saliu, H.A. 2007. “Nigeria and Peace Support Operations: Trends and Policy Implications”. International Peacekeeping. 7(3): 105-119.
  • Tarusarira, J. and Ganiel, G. 2012. Religion, Secular Democracy and Conflict Resolution in Zimbabwe in The Ashgate Research Companion to Religion and Conflict Resolution, 99-117.
  • Wamai, N., 2018. The 2008 Kenyan mediation process: Lessons and dilemmas for conflict prevention in Africa. In The Palgrave Handbook of Peacebuilding in Africa (pp. 119-135). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
The Politics of International Development
  • Adejumobi, S. and A. Olukoshi (eds.). (2008). The African Union and New Strategies for Development in Africa; Cambria Press, New York.
  • Amin, S. 1976. Unequal Development: An Essay on the Social Formations of Peripheral Capitalism. New York : Monthly Review Press
  • Amin, S. 2011. Maldevelopment: Anatomy of a Global Failure. London: Pambazuka Press.
  • Ayittey, G. ed., 2016. Africa unchained: The blueprint for Africa’s future. Springer.
  • Bangura, Y., 1994. Intellectuals, economic reform and social change: constraints and opportunities in the formation of a Nigerian technocracy.Development and change, 25(2), pp.261-305.
  • Bangura, Y., 2006. Ethnic inequalities in the public sector: A comparative analysis. Development and Change, 37(2), pp.299-328.
  • Bob-Milliar, G. M. 2009. Chieftaincy, Diaspora, and Development: The Institution of Nksuohene in Ghana. African Affairs. 108 (433): 541-558
  • Booth, D. and F. Golooba-Mutebi. 2012. “Developmental patrimonialism? The Case of Rwanda.” African Affairs.111(444): 379-403.
  • Chipungu, L. and H. Magidimisha. 2015. Governance for Development in Africa: Solving Collective Action Problems. African Affairs. 114 (454): 152-154.
  • Chome, N., 2015. ‘Devolution is only for development’? Decentralization and elite vulnerability on the Kenyan coast. Critical African Studies7(3), pp.299-316.
  • Kagwanja, P. 2007. “Calming the Waters: The East African Community and Conflict Over the Nile Resources.” Journal of Eastern African Studies.1(3): 321-337.
  • Kanyinga, K., 2000. Re-distribution from above: The politics of land rights and squatting in coastal Kenya (Vol. 115). Nordic Africa Institute.
  • Mkandawire, T. 2001. “Thinking About Developmental States in Africa.” Cambridge Journal of Economics, 25(3): 289-313.
  • Mkandawire, T. ed. 2004. Social Policy in a Development Context. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Mkandawire, T. 2010. “From Maladjusted States to Democratic Developmental States in Africa,” in Constructing a democratic developmental state in South Africa: Potentials and Challenges, edited by Omano Edigheji, 59 – 81.
  • Mkandawire, T. 2010. “How the New Poverty Agenda Neglected Social and Employment Policies in Africa.” Journal of Human Development and Capabilities: A Multi-Disciplinary Journal for People-Centered Development. 11(1): 37 – 55.
  • Mkandawire, T. 2010. “On Tax Efforts and Colonial Heritage in Africa.” Journal of Development Studies. 46(10): 1647-1669.
  • Mwenda, A. and R. Tangri. 2005. “Patronage Politics, Donor Reforms, and Regime Consolidation in Uganda” in African Affairs, 104(416). 449-467.
  • Ndegwa, S.N. and B. Levy. 2003. The Politics of Decentralization in Africa: A Comparative Analysis. World bank.
  • Tangri, R., and A. M. Mwenda. 2006. Politics, Donors and the Ineffectiveness of Anti-corruption Institutions in Uganda. The Journal of Modern African Studies. 44(01): 101-124.
  • Tangri, R. and Mwenda, A., 2001. Corruption and cronyism in Uganda’s privatization in the 1990s. African Affairs, 100(398), pp.117-133.
  • Murithi, T. 2005. The African Union: Pan-African Peacebuilding and Development. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • Odetola, O. 1982. Military Regimes and Development: A Comparative Analysis in African Societies. London: George Allen and Unwin.
  • Rodney, W. 2012. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. London: Pambazuka Press.
  • Tangri, R. and A. Mwenda. 2001. “Corruption and Cronyism in Uganda’s Privatization in the 1990s”. African Affairs. 100(398):117-133.
The Politics of Language, Knowledge and Education
  • Aidoo, A.A., 1996. Literature, Feminism, and the African Woman Today.Reconstructing Womanhood, Reconstructing Feminism: Writings on Black Women, pp.156-74.
  • Appiah, K. A. 1991. Is the Post- in Postmodernism the Post- in Postcolonial? Critical Inquiry. 17(2): 336–357.
  • Busia, A.P., 1989. Silencing Sycorax: On African colonial discourse and the unvoiced female. Cultural Critique, pp.81-104.
  • Federici, S., Caffentzis, C.G. and Alidou, O., 2000. A thousand flowers: Social struggles against structural adjustment in African universities. Africa World Press.
  • Mama, A. 2007. “Is It Ethical to Study Africa? Preliminary Thoughts on Scholarship and Freedom.” African Studies Review. 50(1): 1–26.
  • Mudimbe, V. Y. 1988. The Invention of Africa: Prognosis, Philosophy and the Order of Knowledge. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Mudimbe, V. Y. 1991. Parables and Fables: Exegesis, Textuality, and Politics in Central Africa. Madison: Univ of Wisconsin Press.
  • Mudimbe, V.Y. 1994. The Idea of Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Nyamnjoh, F. B. 2012. “Blinded by Sight: Divining the Future of Anthropology in Africa”. Africa Spectrum. 47: 63–92.
  • Nyamnjoh, F. B. 2012. “‘Potted plants in greenhouses’: A Critical Reflection on the Resilience of Colonial Education in Africa”. Journal of Asian and African Studies.  47 (2): 129-154.
  • Owomoyela, O. 1994. “With Friends like These… A Critique of Pervasive Anti-Africanisms in Current African Studies Epistemology and Methodology”. African Studies Review. 37(3): 77-101.
  • Rutazibwa, O. U. 2014. Studying Agaciro:Moving Beyond Wilsonian Interventionist Knowledge Production on Rwanda. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding8(4): 291-302.
  • Tamale, S. R., and J. Oloka-Onyango. 2000. Bitches at the Academy: Gender and Academic Freedom in Africa.
  • Tendi, B.M. 2010. Making History in Mugabe’s Zimbabwe: Politics, Intellectuals and the Media. Oxford: Peter Lang.
  • Wa Thiong’o, N., 1972. Homecoming: Essays on African and Caribbean literature, culture and politics (p. 145). London: Heinemann.
  • Wa Thiong’o, N. 1981. Decolonising the Mind: The Politics of Language in African Literature. Oxford: James Curry.
  • Wa Thiong’o, N. 1998. Penpoints, Gunpoints, and Dreams: Towards a Critical Theory of the Arts and the State in Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Wa Thiong’o N. Writers in politics: Essays. Nairobi: Heinemann; 1981.
  • Zeleza, P.T. 2005. “Transnational Education and African Universities.” Journal of Higher Education in Africa. 3(1): 1–28.


36 thoughts on “NEW FOR 2020: The Decolonizing the Academy Reading List

  1. Shireen Hassim’s Women’s Organizations and Democracy in South Africa (University of Wisconsin Press) is outstanding as are both books by Ousseina Alidou (University of Wisconsin Press).

  2. On political thought I would add Chinua Achebe’s ‘The Trouble with Nigeria’; Tom Mboya ‘The Challenge of Nationhood and Frantz Fanon’s ‘The Wretched of the Earth’

  3. In the section of Politics and Religion: Abdulkader Tayob, Islam in South Africa. Mosques, Imams and Sermons, Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1999. ; Chanfi Ahmed, Islam et politique aux Comores. Évolution de l´autorité spirituelle depuis le Protectorat français (1886) jusqu’au nos jours, Paris: L’Harmattan, 1999 ; Ousmane Kane, Muslim Modernity in Postcolonial Nigeria. A Study of the Society for the Removal of Innovation and Reinstatement of Tradition, Leiden: Brill, 2003 ; Muhammad Sani Umar, Islam and Colonialism. Intellectual responses of Muslims of Northern Nigeria to British Colonial Rule, Leiden: Brill, 2006. ; Cheikh Anta Babou, Fighting the Greater Jihad. Amadu Bamba and the Foundation of the Muridiyya of Senegal, 1853-1913, Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007 ;

  4. please add my book under education or social movements thanks
    Ismail, S. 2015. The Victoria Mxenge Housing project- women building activism through socialmactivism and informal learning. UCT Press, Cape Town.

    1. What is Sub-Saharan Africa? Begins and ends? What makes it congruent as a region of Africa?

  5. It is going to take awhile to undo the brainwashing that has occurred in Africa. From head of states to jobless youth in the continent, western civilization has inflicted a serious damage on the psyche and ambitions of Africans all over the world. It took time for a mass acknowledgement of this fact, it is going to take much longer to start a tangible action to undo the damage. ”Rhodes must fall” and reading initiatives like this one has been well utilized to magnify the African psychological prison, a bolder and more demanding plan to act on the African condition must then follow. However, it is funny that the same powers we are so yearning to break free from are the same pillars we are relying on to make our voice heard. This world is a big game reserve, you either kill or be killed, unfortunately, Africa is a prey that is whining in the lap of her predator. Sooner or later, we will accept this fact, that people are not the same- with humility, we shall rise from the shackles, work on our weaknesses, build on our strength. We cannot complain to white people forever for exploiting our weaknesses.

  6. Hi , thanks for this impressive list. I am currently writing up my dissertation about decolonization higher education in Brazil and the implementation of Afro-Brazilian History and Culture in the curriculum. As I am writing against the Eurocentric education, I would appreciate if you can let me know what book and author would be good for me to read. Many thanks.

  7. Yusuf Bangura (U of Sierra Leone, formerly of UNRISD) selected books and articles:
    Democracy and Social Policy (edited, Palgrave Macmillan, 2007)
    Public Sector Reform in Developing Countries (co-edited, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006)
    Ethnic Inequalities and Public Sector Governance (edited, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006)
    “Ethnic Inequalities in the Public Sector: A Comparative Analysis”, Development and Change (Vol. 37, No. 2, 2006)
    “Strategic Policy Failure and Governance in Sierra Leone”, Journal of Modern African Studies (Vol. 38, No. 4. 2000)

    Mamadou Diouf, ed. (2013) Tolerance, Democracy, and Sufis in Senegal, Columbia U Press
    Rotimi T. Suberu. Federalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nigeria. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2001. xxvi + 247 pp.

  8. CHOICE Connect
    June 20016
    Comparative Politics
    53-4568 DT450 MARC
    Kimonyo, Jean Paul. Rwanda’s popular genocide: a perfect storm. L. Rienner, 2015. 404p bibl index afp ISBN 9781626371866, $65.00; ISBN 9781626375420 ebook, contact publisher for price.
    This belated, revised publication, first released in French in 2008, is an important contribution to the voluminous literature on Rwanda. Accomplished scholar Kimonyo (Rift Valley Institute) has also been senior adviser to President Kagame. Kimonyo’s research mainly attempts to explain how and why such a significant proportion of the Hutu population facilitated the mass murder of Tutsi and moderate Hutu as well. To a great extent, he is successful. Historical memories of mass violence that benefited Hutus in 1959, extreme land and food shortages that came to a head in the 1980s, and divisive “ethnic” practices under President Habyarimana led to a collapse of traditional civility by 1994. By then, the potential for a policy of total genocide was rooted in the political culture. But Kimonyo persuasively refutes arguments that such a policy was decisively provoked by the president’s death, radio propaganda, or even fears of Rwanda Patriotic Front aggression in this exhaustive, theoretically grounded analysis. The book includes well over three dozen tables with demographic and economic data as well as maps to clarify the presentation. Academics may disagree on some aspects of the catastrophe, but all should find this book useful.
    –P. G. Conway, SUNY College at Oneonta
    Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates and above.

  9. To my mind, the first step to decolonizing anything, African, University or otherwise, is a bend towards self-sufficiency and self-reliance.

    It boggles one’s mind, and sadly so, that 90% of the recommended books, treatises, pamphlets, journals were published not by an African press, but by Oxford, Harvard, Heinemann, Bloomington, et al.

    I was at once amused and pained by the story told by the indefatigable and clear-minded Ghanaian writer, Ayi Kwei Armah — who admirably set up Per Ankh, his own publishing enterprise in Senegal — that he once took a manuscript to an African publishing house, and was told it was too good to be published locally; that he would be better off seeking a European publisher!!!

    Having said that, I think the list should include Kwame Anthony Appiah’s “In My Father’s House – Africa In the Philosophy of Culture”.

  10. Selby Mvusi’s 30 academic papers 1958-1967, on INDUSTRIAL DESIGN, PRODUCT DESIGN, DESIGN-THINKING, DEVELOPMENT POLITICS, POLITICAL ECONOMY OF DEVELOPMENT, ARCHITECTURE & FINE ART, including Mvusi’s seminal presentation in 1964 at Bruges to ICSID (International Council of Societies of Industrial Design) to back Selby Mvusi establishing Africa’s first Industrial Design School at University of Nairobi, Kenya, are published in the Book+CD titled ‘SELBY MVUSI: TO FLY WITH THE NORTH BIRD SOUTH’, 2015, UNISA Press, and is available also from

    30 thought-leading papers written over ten years were presented in USA, Canada, Brazil, Europe and of course southern, west and east Africa, and for the first time are published under one title, together with Art, Photography and Design in the Book+CD – ‘SELBY MVUSI: TO FLY WITH THE NORTH BIRD SOUTH’.

    If anybody needs to know what the leading, battle ground ideas and concepts on industrialisation, manufacturing, copyright, intellectual property production Africa self-actualization was half a century ago, and today still, both intra-Africa, by Africans and about Africa in the World, this book+CD ‘SELBY MVUSI: TO FLY WITH THE NORTH BIRD SOUTH’ is essential reading.

    1. Fantastic! Could you send us some of the full references for those speeches? Title, date, institution, so that we can include them? Thanks so much.

  11. Under politics, you might want to include: Roger Tangri and Andrew M. Mwenda, The Politics of Elite Corruption in Africa. Uganda in comparative African perspective (Routledge, New York, 2013).

  12. wow! I was looking for something like this for years and certainly will use it in my courses. THANKS

  13. This is an impressive list but can I add that it is a list on decolonising the African and not necessarily African Education. There are a number of important subject areas of education itself that need to be reviewed: Methodology Courses, but also in other content areas like Geography, performance, cinematic and plastic arts, mass media and communication. What the list also shows are mostly old books and articles. There are new studies that are done in the different areas, archived in journals and books. The Leiden African Studies Centre does contain some of these new ones. But also as a departure, how about Oral sources in contemporary Africa where contemporary will mean the now, the present? Let’s keep talking

    1. Thanks for your comments, much appreciated. Do send us specific recommendations, we will happily post them up. This is a crowd-sourced list and we are always looking to expand it.

      1. Ayo Bamgbose. 2000. Language and exclusion, the consequences of language policies in Africa. Munster: LIT Verlag.

        Birgit Brock-Utne (ed). 2000. Whose education for all? The recolonization of the African mind. New York: Falmer.

        There are many more works missing, these are two very crucial ones. Of course new work should als be included but a lot of old stuff is still very relevant because many obvious problems keep getting ignored.

  14. I think a whole section on African/Africana Feminist thought would be an important addition…while I recognize many titles by women, feminist viewpoints, women, gender are all important issues and deserve a dedicated section?

  15. This list is just massive! I already have plenty books, and I keep buying. But this is a necessary evil. If we read it’s good but we also need to educate our brothers and sisters who don’t like to read. We have to spread the message out. Most of us are scholars here, and it’s our duty to help out our family.
    @FATIMA DE CARVALHO, I’m very much interested in your research and I’d like to link up with you.

  16. Dear all, arrived here in order to prepare my new syllabus and reading list. I thank you a lot for this really useful resource but notice that there is not much Francophone work. Do you want the list to include only readings in English or would you list also work in other language?

  17. Under The Politics of Ethnicity, add Nnoli, O., 2008. Ethnic Politics in Nigeria (Revised second edition). Enugu: Pan African Centre for Research on Peace and Conflict Resolution.

    Under The Military and Security Sector Reform, add Nnoli, O., 2006. National Security in Africa: A Radical New Perspective. Enugu: Pan African Centre for Research on Peace and Conflict Resolution.

  18. Wonderful. More of this thought and thinkers. My only reservation is how decolonized are the authors? Of a fact is that most Afro scholars have gone too parochial and inauthentic either for reason of stomach infrastructure or the fetish sense of arrival.

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